Why do we use sugar in batteries?


Why do we use sugar in batteries?

How would you like to define sugar battery?

Definition of sugar battery:

A sugar battery can be defined as follows:

“A biofuel battery resembling  a cell having an enzymatic action that is constructed on sugar having an enzymatic action”

2nd definition of sugar battery:

Sugar battery can also be defined as follows:

“A sugar battery or biobattery is also an emerging type of bio batter which is fueled by a biochemical called maltodextrin and facility is provided by enzymes to perform the function of catalysis”

Why is a sugar battery called a bio battery?

A sugar  batter is also known as a bio-battery due to following reasons:

Electricity is generated in a sugar battery by the oxidation of a biochemical compound glucose unit maltodextrin whose oxidation produces carbon dioxide and electrical current. As we have discussed earlier in the definition of a sugar battery enzymes are kept in these batteries to perform the reaction so in these batteries oxidation reaction converts the chemical energy into electrical energy.

 What do you know about the Storage capacity of sugar batteries?

In the future, it is expected that we will be facilitated by sugar batteries in the following ways:

As mobile electrical storage batteries, these batteries will also be used.

source of car batteries:

In the future, it is thought that these batteries will also be proven as electrical battery sources.

Power of sugar batteries:

Sugar batteries can store more mass more than two times up to ten times electrical energy as compared to the lithium-ion battery.

The voltage of sugar batteries:

The voltage of the sugar batteries is generally about in the range of 0.5Volts which is low as compared to the lithium-ion batteries having a voltage of about 3.6 volts. Due to this voltage reason, sugar batteries have low power of electricity.

What do you know about the talented abilities of sugar batteries?

Sugar batteries will also be useful in the future and also proved themselves as a useful source of electrical energy from the following point of view:

Safe use:

As we have stated earlier that sugar batteries are also known as bio batteries. As their name is indicating that these batteries contain less amount of hazardous chemicals as compared to lithium-ion batteries .so when these sugar batteries are used, they only produce carbon dioxide and no other toxic chemicals to the atmosphere but on the other hand, when lithium-ion batteries are used they produce toxic chemicals to the environment or metals to the atmosphere like cadmium, sulfur, lead, and chromium. and these toxic chemicals mix with the vegetables and fruits by causing harmful effects to humans when finally they reach. Besides this these toxic metals when inhaled by humans can produce up to 100 types of harmful gases in the human body. Sometimes when lithium-ion rechargeable batteries are used accidentally they can cause explosions.

Feasibility of fuel:

The feasibility of fuel is an important and key point for the use of sugar batteries because these batteries consume less amount of fuel as compared to lithium-ion batteries. Fuel used in sugar batteries is the derivative of glucose called maltodextrin which is easily available and can be recycled. for this reason, it is also known as a renewable compound. on the other hand, the type of fuel which is used in lithium-ion is lithium carbide which is considered a non-renewable source and is not easily available It is hardly obtained by the process of mining and then passed through the procedure of extracting and purification.

Environmental friendly batteries:

Sugar batteries are considered environmental friendly batteries due to following reasons

production of carbon dioxide:

As we have discussed above the burning of glucose component maltodextrin produces only carbon dioxide and water which can be recycled again and converted into adenosine triphosphate shortly known as ATP. While on the other hand by-product of lithium-ion batteries are heavy metals that contaminate the soil and mix with the vegetables and fruits by affecting the greenhouse effect procedure which has a harsh effect on the procedure of photosynthesis. when sugar batteries leak out carbon dioxide it is also known as carbon neutral and does not affect the greenhouse effect on the other hand carbon neutral is removed by the plants in the mechanism of photosynthesis and the new production of greenhouse gas released is counted as zero and regarded as carbon foot print.

High energy density:

The complete oxidation-reduction reaction of 15% maltodextrin yields a greater amount of energy about 596Ah Kg which is two times double as compared lithium-ion batteries having an energy of about 270Ah Kg. when the mass and volume of the battery decrease the life time of the batter increases.

Drawbacks of sugar batteries:

Sugar batteries have the following negative points which are given as follows:

Requirement of water

Low voltage

More charging time

Requirement of water:

When a sugar battery is used for a long time, it needs little water. if water will not be used then the reaction will not be completed inside the battery.

Low voltage:

Though the voltage of the sugar batteries is about 0.5 volts which can be increased in some cases by the use of some special type of enzymes but still this is much lower when compared to the voltage of lithium-ion battery having a voltage of 3.6 volts.

More charging time:

Due to the low voltage of sugar batteries these batteries take more time as compared to lithium-ion batteries so the charging time of sugar batteries is high as compared to the lithium-ion battery.

 What is the way of Working and designing sugar batteries?

The design of a sugar batter is made on the resemblance of a primary cell. The main components of a sugar battery are the anode, cathode, synthetic pathway, and membrane.

The working mechanism of sugar battery:

The oxidation reaction always takes place at the anode where the fuel a bio component called maltodextrin is oxidized. After the oxidation reaction electrons are produced by the burning of fuel which moves towards the other terminal called the cathode by means of a wire. In this way, an electric current is produced in the form of a direct electrical current. Electrical appliances are designed between both terminals anode and cathode so the direct current can easily flow from one terminal to another terminal.


Redox reaction which is generally produced by an electric current takes place in a synthetic pathway. In the synthetic pathway, there are 13 enzymes like as Phosphogulocomutase, glucose 6 phosphate act as a catalyst, and a bio component which is used as fuel is converted from one form to another form from polymer form to monomer form. After this, the maltodextrin is then oxidized by releasing carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions during the occurrence of four reactions. As we have discussed earlier that enzymes are used as catalyst, so they can react as both reactant and products which takes part in these reactions but does not change from one form to another form which is the main property of a catalyst.

End product/by-product of   reactions taking place in a sugar battery:

One unit of glucose and a little amount of water is produced in the reactions taking place in a sugar battery can produce 24 electrons.

Synthetic pathway:

The synthetic pathway is generally composed of 13 enzymes which provide the security of completion of reactions occurring in the battery known as a redox reaction. These enzymes also ensure the release of 24 electrons by burning one unit of glucose. Different from another natural pathway which uses NADP(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) as a dependent enzyme while the synthetic pathway utilizes other cytosolic enzymes to stable the reaction. From the above discussion, it can be concluded that the sugar battery is independent of the use of complex organic chemicals which are generally heavy, expensive, and unstable in nature.

Advanced features of a sugar battery:

As we have discussed above that the enzymes used in the sugar battery are mobilized and are not fixed at any special or one electrode they can easily move from one electrode to another electrode by having a larger space to free movement. To sustain high-speed mass transfer researchers have introduced an immobilized enzyme Vitamin K3 which will be helpful to a sugar batter to reach a higher energy level as well also a stable energy level. this will also increase the battery life.

Thermo enzymes:

The theremoenzymes are those enzymes that are produced by means of heat.in fact, these enzymes are bacterium in nature like Escherichia coli. these thermoenzymes are also helpful in increasing the stability of a sugar battery.

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